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The Logo is an element made up of the icon and typography. This is the most important element of the group that makes up the corporate identity. Next, we will discuss the two Logo’s aspects — its function and its morphological composition.

A Logo has a double function. It has a fundamental function and a foundational one. These two functions or features —depending on how you see it— make it the most important component of the company’s graphic image.




Fundamental:

The Logo is the essential element without which the company cannot sell its products. In order for a company to launch its products, it is highly important that these have the corporate Logo on them. If this element is missing, the object lacks commercial value, since the Logo guarantees the product’s quality and increases its purchase. This image added to a company’s product is the consumer’s guarantee that it is a quality product and that somebody is responsible for it. Would you buy a product without the company’s corporate Logo? Of course not. Like you, nobody would buy it. Therefore, the Logo is a fundamental element, not only of the company’s image but also of the company itself, since the company cannot operate without it. It cannot sell its products, nor make any ad about it. It would be pointless to make an ad about products that cannot be sold or about products that do not identify with any company by a distinctive image, such as the Logo.

Foundational:

The foundational feature lies in the fact that it is the first and most important element of the company’s corporate image. As we will see in the section called Corporate Identity, the company’s group of design elements make up its image before consumers, it transmits a business message that attracts clients and introduces the company. This group needs to be homogenous —all its elements have to share the same criteria and adjust to the same parameters— so that the message is always the same and unique message. How can we make the elements homogenous? Well, by starting from a base element that will establish the criteria the rest of the elements will meet and, due to the Logo’s importance and temporal location, this is that element. With the Logo you establish, the criteria and the parameters from which the other designs will be created.

As regards the Logo’s morphological composition, this can be divided into three types. Each Logo is created from different combinations of typography and icon. Each combination has its own particular features, both positive and negatives ones.

Logotype:

This type of Logo consists only of typography. There is no iconic reference whatsoever. This Logo’s typography has two features that must be taken into account and exploited to the most. First, we will discuss the typography’s verbal function. This consists of transmitting a message from what it is written with it. That is to say, it is the written message of the different typefaces used from the suitable alphabet for the language of the zone where the company is located. Second, we will discuss typography’s subconscious function. It is not the written message, a clear and understandable message to everybody as it is the case with the verbal content. Using a given typography —font or typeface— to write the company’s name is not the same than using another kind of typography. Each typeface has its own features and they must be taken into account when creating the corporate Logo. For example, if your company manufactures brakes and you write your company’s name in a funny or comic typeface, people will not buy your brakes since, without knowing why, they cannot trust your company and would be reluctant to put their lives in your company’s hands. However if you have a company that organizes child parties and you use an old and formal typeface, people will think that your company is not fun enough to entertain the guests. This is so because typography does not enter the brain the same way the verbal message does. The verbal message is clear, precise and conscious —you read and understand what you are reading. However, typography is not read, it is seen and felt. Few people analyze the typography the company’s name is written in; they just «feel» they want to buy something. That is the reason why it is necessary to choose the right typography for your company.

Isotype:

This type of Logo leaves aside typography and uses only an icon. In this case, the message these elements transmit is not as clear as it is in the previous case. This is so because a drawing has a less stable meaning than a word. However, if you manage to create an icon that is clearly understood without the need of a word, you achieve a great Logo for your company. How is this Logo better than the other one? We cannot say it is better, but it will be more memorable and the capability that a Logo has to stick into people’s mind is an essential and basic feature of it. It is easier to remember images than words, that is the reason why a Logo is easy to remember. If you do not believe us, take Nike’s Logo as an example.

Isologotype:

As its name indicates, this type of Logo is the combination of the other two —icon and typography. This Logo is easy to understand, it is the one that transmits its message in a clearer way, since it uses both words and images to do it. Using this Logo will guarantee you that your message will be securely transmitted, that it will always transmit the right message. However, it is not that great. Design golden rules state that the more complicated the Logo, the harder to remember it. Therefore, this is the clearest element but also the hardest to remember. We leave the analysis to you.


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